Value Chain Analysis
The value chain is a systematic approach to examining the
development of competitive advantage. It was created by M. E. Porter in his
book, Competitive Advantage (1980). The chain consists of a series of activities
that create and build value. They culminate in the total value delivered by an
organisation. The 'margin' depicted in the diagram is the same as added value.
The organisation is split into 'primary activities' and 'support activities.'
Primary Activities 主要活動
Inbound Logistics 進料後勤
Here goods are received from a company's suppliers. They are
stored until they are needed on the production/assembly line. Goods are moved
around the organisation.
This is where goods are manufactured or assembled. Individual
operations could include room service in an hotel, packing of books/videos/games
by an online retailer, or the final tune for a new car's engine.
Outbound Logistics 出貨後勤
The goods are now finished, and they need to be sent along the
supply chain to wholesalers, retailers or the final consumer.
Marketing and Sales 行銷與銷售
In true customer orientated fashion, at this stage the
organisation prepares the offering to meet the needs of targeted customers. This
area focuses strongly upon marketing communications and the promotions mix.
This includes all areas of service such as installation,
after-sales service, complaints handling, training and so on.
This function is responsible for all purchasing of goods,
services and materials. The aim is to secure the lowest possible price for
purchases of the highest possible quality. They will be responsible for
outsourcing (components or operations that would normally be done in-house are
done by other organisations), and ePurchasing (using IT and web-based
technologies to achieve procurement aims).
Technology Development 人力的資源管理
Technology is an important source of competitive advantage.
Companies need to innovate to reduce costs and to protect and sustain
competitive advantage. This could include production technology, Internet
marketing activities, lean manufacturing, Customer Relationship Management
(CRM), and many other technological developments.
Human Resource Management (HRM) 技術發展
Employees are an expensive and vital resource. An organisation
would manage recruitment and selection, training and development, and rewards
and remuneration. The mission and objectives of the organisation would be
driving force behind the HRM strategy.
Firm Infrastructure 採購
This activity includes and is driven by corporate or strategic
planning. It includes the Management Information System (MIS), and other
mechanisms for planning and control such as the accounting department.
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